Cyanobacteria blooms in water Italian guidelines

Science of the Total Environment 598 (2017) 867–880

Italian guidelines to assess and manage the risk associated to bathing and recreational activities

Enzo Funari, Maura Manganelli, Franca M. Buratti, Emanuela Testai
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dept. of Environment and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy

Exposure scenarios

Italian bathing waters are infested by cyanobacterial species that produce cyanotoxins CTX (mainly MCs and in limited areas ATX-a and CYN). Hence our attention has been focused on these CTX and on cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) endotoxins, common to all species.

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